Conscious, aware, cognizant refer to an individual sense of recognition of something within or without oneself. Conscious implies to be awake or awakened to an inner realization of a fact, a truth, a condition, etc.
Unconsciousness is when a person suddenly becomes unable to respond to stimuli and appears to be asleep. A person may be unconscious for a few seconds — as in fainting — or for longer periods of time.
A circadian rhythm is a natural, internal process that regulates the sleep-wake cycle and repeats roughly every 24 hours. It can refer to any biological process that displays an endogenous, en-trainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Hypnagogic hallucinations are vivid visual, auditory, tactile, or even kinetic perceptions that, like sleep paralysis, occur during the transitions between wakefulness and REM sleep.
Sleep drive essentially is your likelihood of falling asleep at a given time. Interestingly, this phenomenon is caused by the gradual accumulation of a neurotransmitter called adenosine during the day which is gradually reduce during sleep.
A major finding that demonstrates an interaction between sleep and metabolic homeostasis is the involvement of adenosine in sleep homeostasis. An accumulation of adenosine is supplied from ATP, which can act as an energy currency in the cell.
Melatonin, released by the pineal gland , controls your sleep patterns. Levels increase at night time, making you feel sleepy. While you're sleeping, your pituitary gland releases growth hormone, which helps your body to grow and repair itself.
Sleep paralysis is caused by a disturbed rapid eye movement cycle because it mostly happens as people are falling into or coming out of REM sleep. During that stage, their brains normally paralyze their muscles anyway -- so they don't act out their dreams.
The restorative theory states that sleep allows for the body to repair and replete cellular components necessary for biological functions that become depleted throughout an awake day.
Sleep helps wounds to heal faster but also restores sore or damaged muscles. Your body can make more white blood cells that can attack viruses and bacteria that can hinder the healing process.
Together, these two types of sleep make up a single cycle where your brain progresses sequentially through each stage of sleep: wake, light sleep, deep sleep, REM, and repeat.
An average adult has five to six REM cycles each night. During this final phase of sleep, your brain becomes more active. This is when most dreaming occurs, heart rate and blood pressure increase, and breathing becomes fast, irregular, and shallow.
In terms of brain wave activity, stage 1 sleep is associated with both alpha and theta waves. Early portion of stage 1 sleep produces alpha waves, relatively low frequency (8–13Hz), high amplitude patterns of electrical activity that become synchronized
Each phase of sleep is important and beneficial to your body and mind, but REM sleep is especially fascinating because it increases brain activity, promotes learning, and creates dreams.
Sleep is as important to our health as eating, drinking and breathing. It allows our bodies to repair themselves and our brains to consolidate our memories and process information.
Sleep deprivation makes us moody and irritable, and impairs brain functions such as memory and decision-making. It also negatively impacts the rest of the body – it impairs the functioning of the immune system, making us more susceptible to infection.
Poor sleep is linked to physical problems such as a weakened immune system and mental health problems such as anxiety and depression.
Sleep is essential to protect the mental and physical health of an individual, and improving the quality of life.